For civilians in many parts of Sudan, 2015 has already brought rising hostilities, mass displacement, and a deepening food crisis. The conditions are such that hundreds of civilians are fleeing across the Sudanese border to refugee camps in Unity State, where South Sudan’s civil war is still raging. They have made the judgement that the risks of remaining in Sudan, where they would continue to be subjected to intense aerial bombardment and shelling of civilian areas, and unsustainable livelihoods, were greater than any risks they might encounter in the conflict zone across the border.
Civilians in the ‘Two Areas’ – Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile – have suffered from nearly four years of uninterrupted conflict that has internally displaced 1.7 million people, roughly half of the population. Meanwhile, the conflict in Darfur has thus far internally displaced 2.5 million, and has resulted in over 4.4 million civilians requiring humanitarian assistance, a level rarely exceeded in the history of the twelve year conflict. Both conflicts have seen civilians systematically targeted with regular reporting of killing, rape, destruction of property and community infrastructure, and loss of livelihoods.